Attention and Focus
While the link between attention and excellence remains hidden most of the time, it ripples through almost everything we seek to accomplish.
Focus matters enormously for success in life and yet we seem to give it little attention. Attention works much like a muscle, use it poorly and it can wither; work it well and it grows.
Inner focus attunes us to our intuitions, guiding values, and better decisions. Outer focus lets us navigate in the larger world. And other focus smoothes our connections to the people in our lives. A (person) tuned out of his internal world will be rudderless; one blind to the world of others will be clueless; those indifferent to the larger systems within which they operate will be blindsided.
How we deploy attention shapes what we see. Or as Yoda (in Star Wars) says,
“Your Focus is Your Reality.”
Despite the advantages of everything being only a click away, our attention span is suffering.
During a parent – teacher conference, the teacher told me that for many years she has had successive classes of students read the same book, Edith Hamilton’s Mythology. Her students have loved it— until five years or so ago. “I started to see kids not so excited— even high-achieving groups could not get engaged with it,” she told me. “They say the reading is too hard; the sentences are too complicated; it takes a long time to read a page.”
She wonders if perhaps her students’ ability to read has been somehow compromised by the short, choppy messages they get in texts. She revealed that one student confessed that he had spent two thousand hours in the last year playing video games. She adds, “It’s hard to teach comma rules when you are competing with World of WarCraft.”
Here is a telling story (I shared similar stories before, in my earlier articles.) I was in a coffee shop just the other day and I noticed that when two people were having a conversation they could not go more than a few minutes without picking up their phone. Our inability to resist checking email, Facebook, and twitter rather than focus on the here and now leads to a real life out-of-office. Another example, from later in the day, comes from the post office. I was waiting patiently in line to pick up a parcel. Finally my turn came and as I approached the counter, the phone rang. The counter clerk, of course, ran to the phone making me feel less important than the mystery person on the phone.
We continually fight distractions. From televisions on during supper, text messages, emails, phone calls … you get the picture. This is one reason I have changed my media consumption habits in 2014.
It feels like we are going through life in a “continuous partial attention.” There, but not really there; unaware of where we place our attention.
I once worked with the founder of a private organization. We often discussed board meetings, agendas, and other areas of time allocation. I sensed a disconnect between where she wanted to spend time on and what she actually spent time on. To verify, I went back over the minutes of the board meetings and categorized each scheduled agenda item. I found a substantial mismatch; she was spending a great deal of time on issues she thought were not important. In fact, the ‘scheduled time’ was almost the complete inverse of what she wanted to focus on.
Here are some of the implications of our modern world.
The onslaught of incoming data leads to sloppy shortcuts, like triaging email by heading, skipping much of voice mails, skimming messages and memos. It’s not just that we have developed habits of attention that make us less effective, but that the weight of messages leaves us too little time simply to reflect on what they really mean.
In 1977, foreseeing what was going to happen, the Nobel Laureate in Economics, Herbert Simon wrote:
“What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it.”
William James, a pioneer of modern psychology, defined attention as
“the sudden taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one of what seems several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought.”
We naturally focus when we are lost. Imagine for a second the last time you were driving in your car without your GPS and you got lost. Think back to the first thing you did in response. I bet you turned off the radio so you could increase your focus.
There are two main varieties of distractions: Sensory and Emotional.
The sensory distracters are easy: as you read these words you are tuning out (our sponsor and all of the text on the right). Or notice for a moment the feeling of your tongue against your upper palate—just one of an endless wave of incoming stimuli your brain weeds out from the continuous wash of background sounds, shapes and colors, tastes, smells, sensations, and on and on.
More daunting is the second variety of lures: emotionally loaded signals. While you might find it easy to concentrate on answering your email in the hubbub of your local coffee shop, if you should overhear someone mention your name (potent emotional bait, that) it’s almost impossible to tune out the voice that carries it— your attention reflexively alerts to hear what’s being said about you. Forget that email. The dividing line between fruitless rumination and productive reflection lies in whether or not we come up with some tentative solution or insight and then can let those distressing thoughts go—or if, on the other hand, we just keep obsessing over the same loop of worry.
The more our focus gets disrupted, the worse we do.
To focus we must tune out emotional distractions. But not at all costs. The power to disengage focus is also important.
That means those who focus best are relatively immune to emotional turbulence, more able to stay unflappable in a crisis and to keep on an even keel despite life’s emotional waves.
Failure to drop one focus and move on to others can, for example, leave the mind lost in repeating loops of chronic anxiety. At clinical extremes it means being lost in helplessness, hopelessness, and self-pity in depression; or panic and catastrophizing in anxiety disorders; or countless repetitions of ritualistic thoughts or acts (check the door lock a dozen times before leaving) in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The power to disengage our attention from one thing and move it to another is essential for well-being.
We have all seen what a strong selective focus looks like. It’s the couple in the coffee shop mentioned above, eyes locked, who fail to realize they are not alone.
It should come as no surprise that we learn best with focused attention.
As we focus on what we are learning, the brain maps that information on what we already know, making new neural connections. If you and a small toddler share attention toward something as you name it, the toddler learns that name; if her focus wanders as you say it, she won’t.
When our mind wanders off, our brain activates a host of brain circuits that chatter about things that have nothing to do with what we are trying to learn. Lacking focus, we store no crisp memory of what we are learning.
We connect what we read to our mental models, which is the heart of learning.
As we read a book, a blog, or any narrative, our mind constructs a mental model that lets us make sense of what we are reading and connects it to the universe of such models we already hold that bear on the same topic.
When we read a book, our brain constructs a network of pathways that embodies that set of ideas and experiences. Contrast that deep comprehension with the interruptions and distractions that typify the ever-seductive Internet.
The continuous onslaught of texts, meetings, videos, music, email, twitter, facebook, and more is the enemy of understanding. The key to understanding, is “deep reading.” And the internet is making this nearly impossible.
There is, however, perhaps no skill better than deep and focused thought. The more information that’s out there, the greater the returns to just being willing to sit down and apply yourself. Information isn’t what’s scarce; it’s the willingness to do something with it. Deep thought must be learned. In order to do that, however, we must tune out most of the distractions and focus.
Deep thinking demands sustaining a focused mind. The more distracted we are, the more shallow our reflections; likewise, the shorter our reflections, the more trivial they are likely to be.
The rest of Focus: The Hidden Driver of Excellence goes on to narrow in on “the elusive and under-appreciated mental faculty in the mind’s operations” known as attention and its role in living “a fulfilling life.”